Everything Burns: The Psychology & Philosophy of the Joker

I wanted to share this article because it is teeming with much information that can help one understand themselves better. We all have our own shadow; by acknowledging and understanding it we can overcome our own personal vices.

Take this article with a grain of salt and look for what it is that you need to learn in this moment. All things happen for a reason; every moment holds an opportunity for you to learn more about yourself and this universe. We are the definers of our reality; choose what it is you wish to learn from this article or ignore it, the choice is yours.

Timothy Frappier

Source: Pop Mythology

Of all the villains in the history of pop culture, the Joker is without doubt one of the most enduring and iconic, sharing ranks with the likes of such immortal fiends as Darth Vader and Hannibal Lecter. And though he has always been popular, it is Christopher Nolan and Heath Ledger’s mesmerizing interpretation in 2008’s The Dark Knight that has indelibly branded the character onto our consciousness forever.

But why, despite being a psychopathic, nihilistic murderer, is the character so popular – so loved, even? Why do we see that freakish red scar of a smile on so many t-shirts, posters and memes even to this day, years after the film? Why do people say that The Dark Knight is one of the few films that has you rooting for the bad guy?

To fully understand the reasons why, we have to delve as deeply as Nolan, Ledger and writer David S. Goyer themselves did while re-envisioning the character. We have to find and recognize that dark, hidden part of our psyche that the Joker’s words and actions arouse, a part so deeply embedded that it took a renowned psychologist to uncover. We have to study the psychology and philosophy of the Joker.

AGENT OF CHAOS

“When the chips are down, these civilized people…they’ll eat each other.”

the-dark-knight-joker
(Warner Bros. / DC Entertainment)

People think too much of themselves sometimes. Have you noticed?  I’m not saying that’s bad, or wrong. I’m not calling people stupid, either. It’s very understandable.

We like to think of ourselves as noble, honest, and good, especially in comparison to other people. We like to believe we’d never hurt someone, or cause any damage of any kind. Psychologists tell us of what’s called “illusory superiority,” the cognitive bias in us all that causes a person to think far too highly of their positive qualities, and far too little of their negative ones. In their heads, they’re much better people than (let’s be honest) they really are.

Again, this doesn’t make us bad or wrong. It’s just something our minds need to do in order to get through the day.

During the English Civil War of the 1600s, a guy named Thomas Hobbes was a bit ahead of the curve in terms of this “illusory superiority” thing, even if he never exactly recognized it as such. He didn’t agree with most people’s idea that they’re inherently moral and righteous. Instead, he theorized that without enforced rules, humanity would revert right back to a brutish and immoral nightmare of a society – one chaotic, hellish and burning. One in which you’d blow up a ferry full of innocents to stay alive.

Today,  Hobbes is recognized mostly for his theories in political philosophy, whose ideas laid virtually the entire foundation of Western Civilization. His most famous work was a horrifically dense tome called Leviathan. It contains perhaps his most famous quote of all, what amounts to his justification for the existence of government:

“…no Society; and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, solitary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short.”

Hobbes is saying that without the structured control of government (what the Joker calls the “schemers”), people become animals. Killers. Thieves. In the 17th-century, this was especially influential, and was the major reason Hobbes and guys like him caught on: government, law and order were absolutely necessary.

Basically, much of your life is what it is now because Thomas Hobbes wrote some things down. That’s no exaggeration.

Now, if this was Ethics 102, Hobbes and the Joker would be sitting right next to one another, passing notes and giggling. They agree with one another on one thing: when the chips are down, “civilized” people eat each other.

Were we in Political Science 102, however, the Joker and Hobbes would be the guys always getting into fights with one another. If Hobbes could somehow possess Bruce Wayne’s technology, TDK would more or less be the same film, except that we’d have a white-bearded Batman instead.

bearded-batman
(image manipulation: Anthony Nowicke / image source: Warner Bros.)

Hobbes supported government for fear of immoral chaos. The Joker, on the other hand, because he’s a downright anarchist psychopath (or psychopathic anarchist), would love nothing more than to see that happen.

It’s why he puts bombs on ferries. It’s why he murders government officials. It’s why he tries to corrupt the one person who’s a symbol that we don’t have to be afraid of people like him (though we really do). The Joker wants to push a whole city into the wicked gravity of madness and anarchy.

But make no mistake: there is a method behind his madness. It annoys me that the Joker only gets credit for being “an agent of chaos” or a raving psychotic inflicting random cruelty. Corrupting the city (that great symbol of civilization) by bringing it down to a primal state, devoid of any meaning or rules, is what the Joker is after. But his “non-plan” is the work of a mastermind. It is anything but chaotic or meaningless. It is logical, clear, and has definite purpose (no matter what Alfred may say). It just so happens to employ an element of randomness. The end result is that the Joker becomes the personification of a philosophical argument taken to its extreme, supporting his nihilistic thesis with the chaos that results from his actions.

Though eventually defeated by Batman, it appears the Joker does indeed prove his point. Harvey Dent was Gotham City’s White Knight, the walking epitome of justice, order and nobility. But the Joker turns him into Two Face who then goes on to murder five people, two of them cops, using a chaotic, absurdly meaningless method of flipping a coin to determine their fates. This alone symbolizes the Joker’s philosophy and mission to disrupt civilized society’s sense of “illusory superiority” and to humble it by bringing it back down to its savage roots.

I HAD A VISION

“Do I really look like a guy with a plan?”

nolan-heath-ledger-dark-kni

Now, let’s go in even deeper. To really understand The Dark Knight’s version of the Joker it is necessary to examine one of his creators, Christopher Nolan.

Christopher Nolan directed Following. And MementoThere was that Inception movie too. He started out indie and his films well-thought-out explorations of Existentialism, the stuff of Nietzsche, Sartre, and Camus.

Existentialism, as I’ll explain more in a minute, asserts the total absence of rules, morals, and codes – except the ones we make up in our heads to feel better about an existence with no purpose whatsoever, period. A terrifying idea.

He may be more Hollywood these days, but he still slips in the heavy stuff here and there – he certainly does so with the Joker, his most famous creation yet. He saw in the character an opportunity to play with significant Existential material, a risky angle on a classic villain that paid off.

At the very least, it demonstrates how a society’s core philosophies manage to bubble up in all its various forms of pop culture. Philosophy describes ways of looking at the world. Apparently, Nolan dug Existentialism, and it makes sense that his beliefs and values would inform the choices he made as a director, if even unconsciously.

A FUNNY WORLD WE LIVE IN

“I believe whatever doesn’t kill you simply makes you…stranger.”

joker-why-so-serious
(Warner Bros. / DC Entertainment)

There’s more to this Existentialism stuff insofar as it concerns the Joker.

It’s no wonder the quote above is really the first substantial thing you hear the Joker say in TDK. You could say it’s his thesis and that the rest of the film becomes his way of supporting it. With some rather extreme evidence.

Indeed, just what does the Joker believe in? What’s interesting is where the quote comes from. It’s a one-letter twist on a phrase you’ve undoubtedly heard before. I don’t even need to repeat it. The guy responsible for that original version was named Friedrich Nietzsche.

Nietzsche and his boys, such as Albert CamusJean-Paul Sartre, and novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky, put forth a lot of bizarre ideas at the end of the last century. Those ideas opposed damn near everything that came before them, and scared some people half to death.

What had them so freaked was the apparent hopelessness of Existentialism. While “hopeless” may be too strong a word for it, it does appear depressing. (Don’t plan a date after your Existentialism class; you wouldn’t be any fun at all.)

joker-rachel
(Warner Bros. / DC Entertainment)

And here’s the real kicker of everything I’ve been rambling on about: Existentialism has caught on. You notice it lately, indirectly, in such trends as secularism, skepticism, and scientific literacy. Those blogs are everywhere. They embrace the idea of a universe without any preordained values (as assigned by a god, say); they embrace the opportunity to chase their own values of science and exploration. Make no question that most people do choose what we call “good” values, but a lot of them do so with an understanding that they chose this or that for themselves, not because anyone or anything told them to.

People these days, whether they know it or not, base a lot of their opinions and beliefs on Existential ideas – or at least in response to them. That’s what their unconscious minds grew up with, whether they realized it or not. They almost can’t help it, as a lot of the movies they’re given to watch these days rely on Existentialism as well. (If you don’t believe me, watch Fight Club, The Matrix, Monty Python’s The Meaning of Life, Taxi Driver, One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest, Groundhog Day, Apocalypse Nowand even Toy Story.)

You hear a lot of people these days questioning “rules.” Rebelliousness and skepticism is a rule of cool for some, ironically enough. Haughty critics in 2043 will write of the prevalence of Existential themes throughout the films of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

The Joker is so popular today because he expresses Existential values and ideals in such an entertaining way. And Existential just happens to be in right now, so it’s no surprise that he caught on the way he did. That’s how pop culture works – a lot of people, deep down, believe in what he says – at least partly. A part of them wishes they could agree with him to a point of even rooting for him, shotgun blasts in the face and all.

WHY SO SERIOUS?

“The only sensible way to live in this world is without rules.”

Nietzsche
He had the greatest mustache ever.

Now that we’ve reviewed what Existentialism is, here are just a couple of specific examples of Existential principles and how TDK demonstrates them, particularly through the Joker:

The Will to Power:

Mustache-Man wrote a lot about concepts called the “ubermensch” and “will to power.” In Existentialism, there are no rules. So how is a person to live? If the Absurd is true (we’ll get to that), then that’s pretty damn scary. We might not know what to do with our lives anymore, eh, Bats?

The ubermensch is an individual who overcomes that fear, that dread, and is able to define his own values, meaning, and purpose. He decides the course of his own life, in no way influenced by anything outside of himself.

Batman, of course, is willing power as well, but while he sometimes struggles with this, the Joker has dived right in. He has embraced his will to power in the world (what an ubermensch does) and tried to assert power and change in the world around him.

The Joker puts Batman through challenges that force him to question what he believes in, to teeter on breaking the “one rule” that he clings to, and that is one reason people repeatedly watch this movie so much. We are held in suspense over what decision Bruce Wayne will make – kill, and abandon the rules that hold his soul together…or not?

Batman does, in fact, achieve ubermensch status himself when he turns out to be truly incorruptible. He stands by the values and codes he honors in himself as a knight.

This is why, on some level, this film has remained (and will remain) popular for so long. Sticking to our values, no matter what, is something we’d like to believe in. Whether it’s Batman’s idealism or the Joker’s nihilism, TDK lets us experience both sides vicariously.

The Absurd:

The Joker is all about the Absurd. Not surprising for a clown, when you think about it. Absurdism rejects the notion that there is any value or meaning or purpose in the universe at all. The Joker obviously agrees with this, and he says it flat out several times.  That’s scary to think though, isn’t it? That there is literally no purpose for us being here? Most Existentialists actually enjoy this to some degree. For them, it is the chance to define our own values for ourselves, and we can choose to be whatever kind of a species we want to be.

What’s scary about the Joker though, and what makes him such a horrifying and effective villain, is that not only does he fully embrace Absurdity, he just so happens to enjoy chaos, violence, and mayhem. He’s a guy of simple taste, enjoying dynamite, gunpowder, and gasoline. Those are the things he values. Those are the things he wills.

A GUY LIKE ME

“See, I’m not a monster. I’m just ahead of the curve.”

Carl-Jung
“To confront a person with his shadow is to show him his own light.”

We have seen the philosophical mold in which the preexisting character of the Joker was recast by Nolan and company. Next, I’ll explain precisely why we are so captivated by him and why, furthermore, it is healthy for us to be (to a degree).

Carl Jung was an early 20th-century psychologist and psychotherapist, highly influenced by Sigmund Freud. While controversy surrounds his theories today, one idea of his has stuck around that most people regard as true: we all break bad every once in a while.

Jung explained this phenomenon with a concept called the “Shadow.” The Shadow is the part of a person’s psyche they refuse to acknowledge. It’s the part of you that wishes you could beat up your boss and then steal his wallet. It’s the part of you that wishes you could rob a bank in a clown mask, or hurl down a public street in a semi firing off rocket launchers.

It’s the part of you that wants to abandon rules, like the Joker did.

According to Jung, a person must recognize those negative impulses to maintain mental health. We must acknowledge the darkness within us but not identify with it. When you don’t acknowledge the Shadow, what happens is that it breaks free, takes on a life of its won and comes back to terrorize you and shatter your “illusory superiority.”

Jung the Shadow
(Artist: Ron Pyatt)

One way we do this is through movies, comic books, and games. Famous, beloved villains jibe with our Shadows, our primal states, and do so in an entertaining fashion that has no undesirable consequences in real-life (so long as you keep it in the realm of fiction). Admit it: you killed the hooker and then stole your money back in Grand Theft Auto. We’ve all murdered a chicken in Hyrule.

The Joker is simply an outlet for the Shadow, and such a compelling one that that millions have been captivated by him and have vicariously lived out the depravities of their psyche’s Shadow. It is precisely because the Joker bombs and murders and corrupts that so many viewers get a kick out of watching him. He acts in ways that we sometimes wish we could, deep down, and we get a vicarious rush out of seeing him indulge in such behavior, without anyone real getting hurt.

NOW WE’RE TALKING

“It’s not about money. It’s about sending a message.”

joker-clapping
(Warner Bros. / DC Entertainment)

So there you have it. I’ve given you a brief tour of the philosophical ideas and influences that went into the creation of the Joker, ideas that the Joker himself believes in whole-heartedly and methodically goes about trying to bring into reality.

We’ve also seen the psychological reason why a character like this can command such a widespread appeal and why, despite his evildoing nature, there is a part of us that is hopelessly in love with him.

The version of the Joker that appears in The Dark Knight has become such a pop culture icon, in part, because he represents a philosophical question that cuts to the very heart of who and what we are. Are we moral animals? Or just animals? The idealist in us wants to side with Batman and believe that humanity, when put to the test, will pass with flying colors. The cynic in us wants to say “f**k people” and side with the Joker as he lets all hell break loose.

This is why the Joker is as essential to the Batman mythos as Batman himself. The two are locked in a perpetual yin-and-yang embrace representing numerous human dichotomies: order and chaos, meaning and absurdity, the light and the shadow. And just as Jung declared that acknowledging the Shadow was essential for a truly balanced psyche, we love the Joker for reminding us of our baser natures, for humbling our loftier fantasies with a dose of brutal reality, and for puncturing our sense of “illusory superiority” when it gets out of hand.

Ahead of the curve indeed.

 

PsyWar — The Battle for Your Mind

Psychological warfare is nothing new nowadays. In fact it is the most preferred form of warfare. Psychological warfare is the key to controlling all aspects of society. If you control the minds of the people, you control the people. You can promote whatever undertaking you desire.

This is why the Powers that Were emphasize control over the collective consciousness. They know their power derives from our consent and without it they cannot do anything. Hence the reason they promote so much propaganda nowadays. Many of the shows, movies and news outlets we spend our time watching or reading is designed for the purpose of promoting some kind of agenda.

When you control the flow of information you essentially gain the ability to program the societal mind. Repetition is the key to programming people, when broadcasting your desired message across multiple platforms you increase the likelihood of that message becoming a belief in the minds of the people. Constantly broadcasting certain messages over time will acclimate people to its supposed existence thus making it easier for others to accept.

This is why we see the news nowadays broadcasting so much fear porn. There is always something about terrorism or shootings. It’s become a common thing. The Powers that Were want you to be fearful, because then your easier to control. So they blanket the news with a erroneous perception of reality in order to take away your power and put you in fight or flight mode.

I see it everyday, so many people are operating from a fearful state of mind, but yet the fear they fear is irrational. They’ve never been affected by what they fear, they’ve never even seen what it is they fear. The only exposure they have to this supposedly fearful idea is from the TV or internet. They don’t have the first hand experience of knowing anything concrete about what they’re fearing.

We’re constantly having our reactionary self triggered by the media. This is done in a attempt to control us. Fear is the greatest tool in controlling people, because even those who believe themselves to not be governed by fear are in fact only ignorant of this fact. They use denial as a means to insulate them from their own self created fear. These are the types of people who claim to not operate from a fearful state of being, but yet at night lock their doors, sleep next to a gun or when surprised automatically act from a survival instinct and reach for their gun.

Yet these are the same people who will deny they are fearful and that they don’t operate from a fearful state of being. If that was the case they wouldn’t react negatively when someone surprises them. They wouldn’t lock their doors and they wouldn’t be bleak in their assessment of our future.

Denial is a powerful Psywar tool. Denial can be used to prevent the people from looking at themselves. At the end of the day we as a species are in denial. These Psywars are only symptoms of what we’re experiencing within ourselves. It’s time to acknowledge the world situation and do what is right to end this madness.

Timothy Frappier

Source: Humans Are Free

As with all totalitarian regimes, the black/white or the good/bad Baby Bush “You’re either with us or you’re with the Terrorists” – binary rhetoric lies at the heart of the Global Power Elite’s PsyWar technology.

In 2004, Denis Boneau, a French journalist writing for the Voltaire Network, published an article called “The Science of World Domination,” making an excellent summary of key milestones in the development of the United States’ post-World War II Global Psychological Warfare Strategy.

He starts by describing the Truman Doctrine of “Containment” of the former Soviet Union that was based on the so-called “long telegram” sent to the State Department in 1946 by an advisor in the US embassy in Moscow – and key Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) scholar – George S. Kennan.

Shortly afterwards, Kennan was called back to the US to brief his superiors more fully and his recommendations were finally published in the July 1947 issue of Foreign Affairs, the official journal of the CFR, as “The Sources of Soviet Conduct.”

This became known as the “X” article because that’s how Kennan signed it, as there was still heated debated as to whether it would become official US foreign policy.

It did. With his highly influential article, Kennan gave birth to the US policy of “Containment” of the Soviet Union which consisted in blocking the expansion of communism through the control of national emancipationist movements that could lead to greater power to pro-socialist or nationalist leaders.

As official policy, “Containment” required the collaboration of experts capable of providing geographical, economic, cultural, psychological and sociological data useful to the US Armed Forces and the intelligence community, working very closely with key think tanks like the CFR.

Thus began the Cold War which Kennan and the US Government believed would give the United States a historic opportunity to assume leadership over what they would eventually describe as the “Free World.”

With time, as the Global Power Elite became more deeply embedded inside the US and British public and private power structures (and that of their key allies), that “leadership” would end up encompassing practically the whole planet.

In a way, one can say that the CFR in conjunction with other think-tank and university scholars – George Kennan, Henry Kissinger, Leo Strauss, Zbigniew Brzezinski included – single-handedly started and macro-managed last century’s forty-five year long Cold War.

As part of that global strategy, 1947 also saw the Truman Administration sanction the National Security Act which, amongst other things, created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) tasked with designing, planning and executing “propaganda, economic war, direct preventive action, sabotage, anti-sabotage, destruction, subversion against hostile States, assistance to clandestine liberation movements, guerrilla, murders, assistance to indigenous groups opposed to the enemy countries of the ‘free world’…”

What is Psychological Warfare?

Boneau defines Psychological Warfare (PsyWar) as a number of actions ranging from radio propaganda to torture, that require comprehensive information on targeted populations.

In a document written in 1948, American ground forces defined “psychological warfare” as follows:

“It is based on moral and physical means different from those upon which orthodox military techniques are based on.

“Its purpose is: (a) To destroy the will and the fighting spirit of the enemy and avoid its allies’ support and, (b) To encourage our troops and our allies’ will of being victorious.”

PsyWar uses every possible weapon and tool to influence and impact the will of the enemy. Such “weapons” are labelled “psychological” because of their effect and not because of their own nature.

This is the reason why, open propaganda (“white”), secret (“black”) or “grey” propaganda – subversion, sabotage, murders, special operations, guerrilla, espionage, political, economic and racial and ethnic pressures – are all considered useful PsyWar weapons.

To implement such programs, the intelligence services recruited specialists on behavioural sciences capable of inventing the “simple, clear and repetitive” white propaganda and black propaganda aimed at provoking “disorder, confusion and… terror” within the enemy forces.

We thus begin to fathom that the so-called “Arab Spring” of today did not just suddenly and spontaneously explode in 2011, but was rather hatched from an “egg” laid decades ago and brooded by the secret intelligence agencies.

“White” Propaganda

This began in the 40’s and 50’s with Project Troy that mobilized top scholars to identify available means of transmitting the “truth” (i.e., US propaganda) behind the Iron Curtain through powerful radio transmitters like the Voice of America, the broadcasting network created by the International Information Service (IIS), another PsyWar institution created under the Truman Administration.

Voice of America was used to promote US “values” of so-called “democracy,” the “American Way of Life,” “freedom” and Corporate Capitalism.

A key leader of Project Troy was James Webb, adviser to Secretary of State Dean Acheson and a “psychological warfare” operative who recommended university experts and the government to work closer.

They soon realised, however, that Voice of America was not enough to penetrate the Iron Curtain and supported by the US Navy and the CIA, they suggested other channels to implement “white” propaganda: university exchanges, publications of books, information through the mail, professional journals, commerce and industrial publications.

Truman also created the Psychological Strategy Board encouraging studies of “Soviet society” through a program of recruiting dissidents called Project CENIS – Centre for International Studies – at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) directed by CFR operative Max Millikan.

This worked so well that in 1950 the US Air Force commissioned and funded similar research on the Korean population.

Wilbur Schramm, the founding father of the mass communication paradigm, John Ridley and Fredericks Williams were given the mission of interviewing anti-communist refugees to draw up a suitable propaganda strategy on Korea.

The study also resulted in the establishment of the “Public Opinion Quarterly” (POQ), the official magazine of “psychological warfare” community.

In the 1963 Project Camelot was created that defined process models leading to national revolutions in Third World countries to facilitate counter-insurgence operations.

Camelot is a good example of the strengthening ties between behavioural scholars and the US Intelligence community (i.e., intel services, universities, major corporations, think-tanks and the Military).

It facilitated interventions in Yemen, Cuba and the Congo, and helped foresee and prevent the risk of revolution.

In Chile, operating through the Special Operations Research Office (SORO), Project Camelot supported CIA plans to overthrow the democratically elected government of Salvador Allende imposing General Augusto Pinochet’s military junta on Chile on 11 September 1973.

Psychological Warfare Strategy development also counted on key universities dealing in Communication Sciences to develop the “mass communication” paradigm financed by the US Military, the CIA and the State Department.

This led to effective propaganda used to penetrate the Iron Curtain through different means, including leaflets and broadcasting.

The discipline’s field of study was wide: persuasion techniques, opinion polls, interviews, military and political mobilizations, ideological dissemination…

They have now come a long way thanks to dramatic breakthroughs in communications and information technologies, where propaganda and PsyWar have to a great extent been outsourced and privatised.

Today, their main PsyWar weapons include TV, radio, press and internet outlets such as Fox, CNN, MSNBC, ABC, CBS, PBS, New York Times, Newsweek, BBC, RTVE, RAI, Time, Daily Telegraph, Sun, Mirror, Daily News, Reuters, Jerusalem Post and their global subsidiaries and dependants.

There Were 88 Media Companies… Now There Are Only 6 &All Get Their News from Rothschild

Most importantly, this process also encompasses that key arm of social engineering and thought deformation known as the “entertainment industry” with Hollywood as its main hub and flagship.

Dirty Tricks Departments

From the very beginning, torture was considered a research field in social sciences. During the Korean War, the BSSR (main “black” propaganda research centre) was charged with carrying out studies for the Army to identify Eastern Europe population’s “vulnerability targets and factors” while defining different “aspects of psychological violence.”

BSSR reported on the effects of traditional interrogation techniques – electric shocks, blows, drugs – all funded in part by the CIA, especially on the populations of Viet Nam and Africa, geared at improving torture effectiveness.

The paradigm of mass communication was inserted in a broader intellectual plan consisting in the division of the world map based on the American strategists’ logic.

The patriarch of this discipline, Wilbur Schramm (as did Leo Strauss), offered a perspective of this reductionist dimension of communication sciences based on the “good guys/bad guys” antagonism, where communism symbolised “Evil” and America symbolised “Good.”

This was shared by the majority of the intellectuals and scientists supporting the US government in its fight against Soviet expansionism where neutrality was considered treason.

In 2001, the Bush Administration reactivated these Cold War mechanisms, not to fight the Soviet Union but to impose a “New World Order.” Since 11 September 2001, the excuse for this reactivation is “The War on Terror.”

Once again the intelligence community turned to universities: the CIA’s director of scientific research, John Philips, took control of the Rochester Institute of Technology; Michael Crawl, deputy director of the CIA’s joint economic association in the computer sector was appointed dean of the University of Arizona, and Robert Gates (former CIA director under Bush Senior) before becoming Bush/Obama’s Pentagon Chief was president of Texas A&M University.

Alas! Nothing new under the sun…

About the author: Adrian Salbuchi is a political analyst, author, speaker and radio talk-show host in Argentina. He has published several books on geopolitics and economics in Spanish, and recently published his first eBook in English: The Coming World Government: Tragedy & Hope? which can be ordered through his web site www.asalbuchi.com.ar, or details can be requested by E-mail toarsalbuchi@gmail.com. Salbuchi is 58 years of age, married, with four adult children, and works as strategic consultant for domestic and international companies. He is also founder of the Second Republic Project in Argentina, which is expanding internationally.